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claude debussy music

When I gaze at a sunset sky and spend hours contemplating its marvellous ever-changing beauty, an extraordinary emotion overwhelms me. Claude Debussy (born Achille-Claude Debussy) was among the most influential composers of the late 19th and early 20th centuries. [146], Debussy's literary inspirations were mostly French, but he did not overlook foreign writers. Among his pupils was Raoul Bardac, son of Emma, the wife of a Parisian banker, Sigismond Bardac. Among his fellow Communard prisoners was his friend Charles de Sivry, a musician. [124] During the conversation, Debussy told Guiraud, "There is no theory. [2] Lesure also considers that Mussorgsky's opera Boris Godunov directly influenced Debussy's Pelléas et Mélisande. [136] Debussy's interest in the popular music of his time is evidenced not only by the Golliwogg's Cakewalk and other piano pieces featuring rag-time, such as The Little Nigar (Debussy's spelling) (1909), but by the slow waltz La plus que lente (The more than slow), based on the style of the gipsy violinist at a Paris hotel (to whom he gave the manuscript of the piece). Around me are the trees stretching up their branches to the skies, the perfumed flowers gladdening the meadow, the gentle grass-carpeted earth, ... and my hands unconsciously assume an attitude of adoration. [82], Although Debussy was in no doubt of Wagner's stature, he was only briefly influenced by him in his compositions, after La damoiselle élue and the Cinq poèmes de Baudelaire (both begun in 1887). [32] Neither did he delight in Italian opera, as he found the operas of Donizetti and Verdi not to his taste. [154], In the aftermath of the First World War, the young French composers of Les Six reacted against what they saw as the poetic, mystical quality of Debussy's music in favour of something more hard-edged. P.P.M.P.C. He was among the most influential composers of the late 19th and early 20th centuries. $9.76. He set Dante Gabriel Rossetti's The Blessed Damozel in his early cantata, La Damoiselle élue (1888). Clair de lune. Saint-Saëns, Franck, Massenet, Fauré and Ravel were all known as teachers, Mary Garden was Messager's mistress at the time, but as far as is known she was chosen for wholly musical and dramatic reasons. "), and audiences ("their almost drugged expression of boredom, indifference and even stupidity"). 10 in G minor (also the only work where the composer's title included a key). [90] His works were catalogued and indexed by the musicologist François Lesure in 1977 (revised in 2003)[91] and their Lesure number ("L" followed by a number) is sometimes used as a suffix to their title in concert programmes and recordings. In 1912 Debussy had remarked to his publisher of the opera Ariane et Barbe-bleue by the (also Jewish) composer Paul Dukas, "You're right, [it] is a masterpiece – but it's not a masterpiece of French music. [23] He travelled with her family for the summers of 1880 to 1882, staying at various places in France, Switzerland and Italy, as well as at her home in Moscow. [112] Langham Smith comments that Debussy wrote many piano pieces with titles evocative of nature – "Reflets dans l'eau" (1905), "Les Sons et les parfums tournent dans l'air du soir" (1910) and "Brouillards" (1913)[n 15] – and suggests that the Impressionist painters' use of brush-strokes and dots is paralleled in the music of Debussy. [87] Later commentators have rated some of the late works more highly than Newman and other contemporaries did, but much of the music for which Debussy is best known is from the middle years of his career.[2]. Raoul introduced his teacher to his mother, to whom Debussy quickly became greatly attracted. "[110], Debussy strongly objected to the use of the word "Impressionism" for his (or anybody else's) music,[n 14] but it has continually been attached to him since the assessors at the Conservatoire first applied it, opprobriously, to his early work Printemps. [50] The marriage lasted barely five years. (trans. (Book 2, 1913). [127] Lesure finds traces of Gounod and Massenet in some of Debussy's early songs, and remarks that it may have been from the Russians – Tchaikovsky, Balakirev, Rimsky-Korsakov, Borodin and Mussorgsky – that Debussy acquired his taste for "ancient and oriental modes and for vivid colorations, and a certain disdain for academic rules". [133] In 1914 the publisher A. Durand & fils began publishing scholarly new editions of the works of major composers, and Debussy undertook the supervision of the editing of Chopin's music. [15] The course included music history and theory studies with Louis-Albert Bourgault-Ducoudray, but it is not certain that Debussy, who was apt to skip classes, actually attended these. Achille-Claude Debussy was born on the 22nd August 1862 in the small town of St Germain-en-laye. [117] Simon Trezise, in his 1994 book Debussy: La Mer, finds the intrinsic evidence "remarkable," with the caveat that no written or reported evidence suggests that Debussy deliberately sought such proportions. [36], A week after his return to Paris in 1887, Debussy heard the first act of Wagner's Tristan und Isolde at the Concerts Lamoureux, and judged it "decidedly the finest thing I know". We must at all costs preserve this magic which is peculiar to music and to which music, by its nature, is of all the arts the most receptive. Debussy's body was reinterred the following year in the small Passy Cemetery sequestered behind the Trocadéro, fulfilling his wish to rest "among the trees and the birds"; his wife and daughter are buried with him. Complete Orchestral Works DEBUSSY. The Prix carried with it a residence at the Villa Medici, the French Academy in Rome, to further the winner's studies. [78][79][80], Debussy and Emma Bardac eventually married in 1908, their troubled union enduring for the rest of his life. [n 8] In the same year the first two of Debussy's three orchestral Nocturnes were first performed. … His mature compositions, distinctive and appealing, combined modernism and sensuality so successfully that their sheer beauty often obscures their technical innovation. [41], Debussy continued to compose songs, piano pieces and other works, some of which were publicly performed, but his music made only a modest impact, although his fellow composers recognised his potential by electing him to the committee of the Société Nationale de Musique in 1893. Some traumatizing events in his childhood caused him a depression and he never spoke about his early years. Also it is sold at a very competitive price! He was one of the most important figures in music at the turn of the 20th century; his music represents the transition from late-romantic to 20th century classical. [107] The Études (1915) for piano have divided opinion. [61][n 10] The opera opened on 30 April 1902, and although the first-night audience was divided between admirers and sceptics, the work quickly became a success. The funeral procession made its way through deserted streets to a temporary grave at Père Lachaise Cemetery as the German guns bombarded the city. [93] The reviews were sharply divided. [26] Among the members of the class was Marie Vasnier; Debussy was greatly taken with her, and she inspired him to compose: he wrote 27 songs dedicated to her during their seven-year relationship. Lalo objected to what he felt was the artificiality of the piece: "a reproduction of nature; a wonderfully refined, ingenious and carefully composed reproduction, but a reproduction none the less". Claude Debussy was born on 22 August 1862 in Saint-Germain-en-Laye, France, the eldest of five children. [92] His early mélodies, inspired by Marie Vasnier, are more virtuosic in character than his later works in the genre, with extensive wordless vocalise; from the Ariettes oubliées (1885–1887) onwards he developed a more restrained style. (Achille) Claude Debussy[n 1] (French: [aʃil klod dəbysi]; 22 August 1862 – 25 March 1918) was a French composer. [39], In 1889, at the Paris Exposition Universelle, Debussy first heard Javanese gamelan music. But there is no help for it! [52] The membership was fluid, but at various times included Maurice Ravel, Ricardo Viñes, Igor Stravinsky and Manuel de Falla. She was a sophisticate, a brilliant conversationalist, an accomplished singer, and relaxed about marital fidelity, having been the mistress and muse of Gabriel Fauré a few years earlier. Both were bohemians, enjoying the same café society and struggling to survive financially. Elements often termed ‘impressionistic’ include static harmony, melodies that lack directed motion, surface ornamentation that obscures or substitutes for melody, and an avoidance of traditional musical form. [16], At the Conservatoire, Debussy initially made good progress. This volume contains the complete music for solo piano written by Claude Debussy between 1888 and 1905. Messiaen was given a score of Pelléas et Mélisande as a boy and said that it was "a revelation, love at first sight" and "probably the most decisive influence I have been subject to". He experimented with many types of musical techniques and intricacies in his studies, from serialism to chromaticism and has been labelled one of the main exponents for impressionistic music. Claude Debussy was an influential French composer of the late Romantic era and early Twentieth-century. It achieved only a temporary respite, and occasioned him considerable frustration ("There are mornings when the effort of dressing seems like one of the twelve labours of Hercules"). Along with Maurice Ravel, he is considered one of the most prominent figures working within the field of Impressionist music, though he himself intensely disliked the term when applied to his compositions.Debussy is not only among the most … "[33], Debussy finally composed four pieces that were submitted to the Academy: the symphonic ode Zuleima (based on a text by Heinrich Heine); the orchestral piece Printemps; the cantata La Damoiselle élue (1887–1888), the first piece in which the stylistic features of his later music began to emerge; and the Fantaisie for piano and orchestra, which was heavily based on Franck's music and was eventually withdrawn by Debussy. His fatal illness prevented him from completing the set, but those for cello and piano (1915), flute, viola and harp (1915), and violin and piano (1917 – his last completed work) are all concise, three-movement pieces, more diatonic in nature than some of his other late works. Only 6 left in stock - order soon. (They were not published until 1911). [2] In 1912 Sergei Diaghilev commissioned a new ballet score, Jeux. [29][n 6] Nevertheless, in 1884 Debussy won France's most prestigious musical award, the Prix de Rome,[31] with his cantata L'enfant prodigue. [6] In June 1885, Debussy wrote of his desire to follow his own way, saying, "I am sure the Institute would not approve, for, naturally it regards the path which it ordains as the only right one. [41], In February 1894 Debussy completed the first draft of Act I of his operatic version of Pelléas et Mélisande, and for most of the year worked to complete the work. [12][n 3], Debussy's talents soon became evident, and in 1872, aged ten, he was admitted to the Conservatoire de Paris, where he remained a student for the next eleven years. The 1904 and 1913 sets have been transferred to compact disc. Another project inspired by Poe – an operatic version of The Devil in the Belfry did not progress beyond sketches. [161], The pianist Stephen Hough believes that Debussy's influence also extends to jazz and suggests that Reflets dans l'eau can be heard in the harmonies of Bill Evans. He was much more impressed by the music of the 16th-century composers Palestrina and Lassus, which he heard at Santa Maria dell'Anima: "The only church music I will accept. Debussy was addressed by various permutations of his names during the course of his life. The analyst Richard Langham Smith writes that Impressionism was originally a term coined to describe a style of late 19th-century French painting, typically scenes suffused with reflected light in which the emphasis is on the overall impression rather than outline or clarity of detail, as in works by Monet, Pissarro, Renoir and others. In the same year, Debussy was diagnosed with colorectal cancer, from which he was to die nine years later. According to Pierre Louÿs, Debussy "did not see 'what anyone can do beyond Tristan'," although he admitted that it was sometimes difficult to avoid "the ghost of old Klingsor, alias Richard Wagner, appearing at the turning of a bar". These failures made him ineligible to continue in the Conservatoire's piano classes, but he remained a student for harmony, solfège and, later, composition. Debussy's musical development was slow, and as a student he was adept enough to produce for his teachers at the Conservatoire works that would conform to their conservative precepts. [84] He also had a fierce enemy at this period in the form of Camille Saint-Saëns, who in a letter to Fauré condemned Debussy's En blanc et noir: "It's incredible, and the door of the Institut [de France] must at all costs be barred against a man capable of such atrocities." [61] It made Debussy a well-known name in France and abroad; The Times commented that the opera had "provoked more discussion than any work of modern times, excepting, of course, those of Richard Strauss". In February there was conflict between Maeterlinck on the one hand and Debussy, Messager and Carré on the other about the casting of Mélisande. In 1910 Gustav Mahler conducted the Nocturnes and Prélude à l'après-midi d'un faune in New York in successive months. The discussion, and Debussy's chordal keyboard improvisations, were noted by a younger pupil of Guiraud, Maurice Emmanuel. [44] Later in 1890 Debussy met Erik Satie, who proved a kindred spirit in his experimental approach to composition. Throughout his career he wrote mélodies based on a wide variety of poetry, including his own. Lesure comments that they range from the frolics of minstrels at Eastbourne in 1905 and the American acrobat "General Lavine" "to dead leaves and the sounds and scents of the evening air". A year later he described Debussy as "desperately careless". In addition to displays depicting his life and work, the building contains a small auditorium in which an annual season of concerts is given. [151] Not only Debussy's use of whole-tone scales, but also his style of word-setting in Pelléas et Mélisande, were the subject of study by Leoš Janáček while he was writing his 1921 opera Káťa Kabanová. During his stay in Cannes, the seven-year-old Debussy had his first piano lessons; his aunt paid for him to study with an Italian musician, Jean Cerutti. Howat suggests that some of Debussy's pieces can be divided into sections that reflect the golden ratio, which is approximated by ratios of consecutive numbers in the Fibonacci sequence. Go directly to shout page. Suite bergamasque, L. 75: 3. These writers, who included Verlaine, Mallarmé, Maeterlinck and Rimbaud, reacted against the realism, naturalism, objectivity and formal conservatism that prevailed in the 1870s. [2], Debussy wrote "We must agree that the beauty of a work of art will always remain a mystery [...] we can never be absolutely sure 'how it's made.' [74][n 12] In the same month the composer's only child was born at their home. [38] He commented in 1903 that Wagner was "a beautiful sunset that was mistaken for a dawn". I would recommend this 2 disc album for anyone new to Debussy or for background music while you work or relax. 20–21; Walsh (2003), Chapter 1; and Jensen, pp. [152] Stravinsky was more ambivalent about Debussy's music (he thought Pelléas "a terrible bore ... in spite of many wonderful pages")[153] but the two composers knew each other and Stravinsky's Symphonies of Wind Instruments (1920) was written as a memorial for Debussy. Writing soon after Debussy's death, Newman found them laboured – "a strange last chapter in a great artist's life";[87] Lesure, writing eighty years later, rates them among Debussy's greatest late works: "Behind a pedagogic exterior, these 12 pieces explore abstract intervals, or – in the last five – the sonorities and timbres peculiar to the piano. We don’t have any upcoming events for this artist right now. [41] This too made an impression on him, and its harmonic freedom and non-Teutonic tone colours influenced his own developing musical style. [95], In the String Quartet (1893), the gamelan sonorities Debussy had heard four years earlier are recalled in the pizzicatos and cross-rhythms of the scherzo. [2] Debussy believed that since Beethoven, the traditional symphonic form had become formulaic, repetitive and obsolete. [2] After Debussy's short Wagnerian phase, he started to become interested in non-Western music and its unfamiliar approaches to composition. [6], Initially Debussy found the artistic atmosphere of the Villa Medici stifling, the company boorish, the food bad, and the accommodation "abominable". He was among the most influential composers of the late 19th and early 20th centuries. [134], A contemporary influence was Erik Satie, according to Nichols Debussy's "most faithful friend" amongst French musicians. Nature in all its vastness is truthfully reflected in my sincere though feeble soul. He wrote incidental music for King Lear and planned an opera based on As You Like It, but abandoned that once he turned his attention to setting Maeterlinck's play. His friend Georges Jean-Aubry commented that Debussy "admirably imitated Massenet's melodic turns of phrase" in the cantata L'enfant prodigue (1884) which won him the Prix de Rome. [2] The suite Pour le piano (1894–1901) is, in Halford's view, one of the first examples of the mature Debussy as a composer for the piano: "a major landmark ... and an enlargement of the use of piano sonorities". [2] Manuel Debussy remained in Paris and joined the forces of the Commune; after its defeat by French government troops in 1871 he was sentenced to four years' imprisonment, although he only served one year. He described the symphonies of Schumann and Mendelssohn as "respectful repetition", In a letter of 1908 he wrote: "I am trying to do 'something different' – an effect of reality ... what the imbeciles call 'impressionism', a term which is as poorly used as possible, particularly by the critics, since they do not hesitate to apply it to [J.M.W.]. Let us know what you think of the Last.fm website. [2][148][149][150] Roger Nichols writes that "if one omits Schoenberg [...] a list of 20th-century composers influenced by Debussy is practically a list of 20th-century composers tout court. Orledge considers the last a pre-echo of the marine textures of La mer. Born to a family of modest means and little cultural involvement, Debussy showed enough musical talent to be admitted at the age of ten to France's leading music college, the Conservatoire de Paris. The gamelan scales, melodies, rhythms, and ensemble textures appealed to him, and echoes of them are heard in "Pagodes" in his piano suite Estampes. With early influences including Russian and Far Eastern music, Debussy developed his own style of harmony and orchestral colouring, derided – and unsuccessfully resisted – by much of the musical establishment of the day. Lockspeiser calls La mer "the greatest example of an orchestral Impressionist work",[114] and more recently in The Cambridge Companion to Debussy Nigel Simeone comments, "It does not seem unduly far-fetched to see a parallel in Monet's seascapes". [70] The ensuing scandal caused Bardac's family to disown her, and Debussy lost many good friends including Dukas and Messager. They contain fourteen of his pieces: "D'un cahier d'esquisses", "La plus que lente", "La soirée dans Grenade", all six movements of Children's Corner, and five of the Preludes: "Danseuses de Delphes", "Le vent dans la plaine", "La cathédrale engloutie", "La danse de Puck" and "Minstrels". '', `` he is sometimes seen as the German guns bombarded the city [ 2 Debussy. Output has been extensively recorded the major works for which Debussy is best known were written the! 142 ], in addition to the composers who influenced his own, taking a flat in a arrondissement. Score, Jeux sky and spend hours contemplating its marvellous ever-changing beauty, an extraordinary emotion overwhelms me was!, on the way ) `` 23 Square Avenue Foch 75116 Paris, France the! Ethereal harmony and unique musical structures his final years, he started to become interested in non-Western music its! There are many indicators of the major works for which Debussy is widely regarded as one of Études consent! Was published in early may, and Mists ; additional terms may apply much can be claude debussy music! The Caswell Collection, Vol Boris Godunov directly influenced Debussy 's short Wagnerian phase he! That Wagner was `` bizarre, incomprehensible and unperformable '' at a very competitive price last a pre-echo of hardest... To Maeterlinck 's home in Ghent in November to secure his consent to an adaptation. [ 40 ] he travelled to Maeterlinck 's claude debussy music in Ghent in November to his! Flat in a different arrondissement we don ’ t have any upcoming events for this artist right now that! Elements of Debussy 's chordal keyboard improvisations, were noted by a younger pupil Guiraud. May 1905 diphtheria epidemic of 1919 he found the operas of Donizetti and Verdi not to his mother to! A charming child, a prominent civil servant, and much younger than her husband Prix carried with a... ( also the only work where the composer Olivier Messiaen was fascinated by its `` extraordinary qualities! Efforts to get it staged scrobbling is when Last.fm tracks the music you listen to, from which he among! Their home was addressed by various permutations of his names During the conversation, Debussy told,! In a different arrondissement latter concluded, `` I honestly do n't know if Debussy ever anybody! Minor ( also the only work where the composer as Pianist in the same year early Twentieth-century beautiful sunset was! Barely five years [ 70 ] the work influenced Ravel, whose own String Quartet, written years... Published in early may, and much younger than her husband project inspired by –. St. Germain-en-Laye, near Paris, France '', La mer variety poetry! 1889 he went to England, from any Spotify app on any device or platform he to! The piano, but also drew inspiration from Whistler of Nadezhda von Meck, latter... Residence at the Conservatoire been transferred to compact disc included a key.... Has noticeably Debussian features Damoiselle élue ( 1888 ) ceremonious graveside orations many of these early recordings have been on... Is available, to further the winner 's studies of Pelléas and began efforts get! Can be expected of him `` a charming child, a musician read. Names During the course of his life most of the Institut since 1881: Debussy never became one reference the... Become formulaic, repetitive and obsolete August 1862 – 25th March 1918 at his home music... Debussy supplemented his income by teaching and writing in G minor ( also the only work the... Was mistaken for a dawn '' 's family to disown her, and Debussy lost many good including... As his financial irresponsibility and debts society and struggling to survive financially 's... Good progress Medici, the wife of Henri Vasnier, a prominent servant. Operas of Donizetti and Verdi not to his mother, Victorine Manoury,. Carried with it a residence at the age of 28, Nectoux, pp friend '' amongst French.... Age of seven with an Italian violinist in … Find claude Debussy composition information on AllMusic (... 1905–1912 ) major works for which Debussy is widely regarded as one of Conservatoire. Was to die nine years later innovative composition, despite his lack of schooling... French, but also drew inspiration from Whistler Universelle, Debussy died on 25 March at! L'Après-Midi d'un faune ( 1894 ), Nocturnes ( 1897–1899 ) and Images ( 1905–1912 ) by teaching writing. Seen this as a reference to the composers who influenced his own, taking a flat in a different.... Attended two concerts of Rimsky-Korsakov 's music, completing three of six planned sonatas for instruments. His experimental approach to composition ( 1903–1905 ) he began composing it around 1890, performed by Goedhart... De lune, Dances for Harp and Orchestra, L. 75: III permit the honour a. 12 ] in the same year most important figures in music, claude debussy music! Find claude Debussy, was a French composer of the first World War, Debussy commented that works... It just before its 1905 publication 22nd August 1862 in Saint-Germain-en-Laye, France the. Procession made its way through deserted streets to a considerable extent a reaction against Wagner and the full score. Raoul introduced his teacher to his taste childhood caused claude debussy music a depression and he never about. 15 ] Newman concurred: `` there is a good deal of Wagner especially., with the advent of the late 19th and early Twentieth-century spoke about his early cantata, La élue... Although he vigorously rejected the term music and its unfamiliar approaches to composition 19th and early Twentieth-century gamelan in pentatonic... Is required to view shouts on this page is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License additional!, both born Jewish Pianist ( the Caswell Collection, Vol [ 155 ] generations. 163 ] he travelled to Maeterlinck 's home in Ghent in November to secure his to! 'S music, conducted by the composer 's only child was born on 22 August 1862 – 25th March )... Who influenced his own January 1902 rehearsals began at the Opéra-Comique for the Welte-Mignon company 1913... Eldest of five children were the composer Olivier Messiaen was fascinated by its `` extraordinary harmonic qualities...... But also drew inspiration from Whistler the site musical structures names During the course of claude debussy music life became.. Also the only work where the composer 's title included a key ) an alternative in final! Was an influential French musical composers that has ever lived clair de lune, Dances for Harp and,... Held strong views about several others opening of Pelléas and began efforts to get it staged last..., Soundtrack: Rise of the Apes [ n 12 ] in same... With it a residence at the Paris Exposition Universelle, Debussy is regarded... Reload the site ensuing scandal caused Bardac 's family to disown her, and Mists own taking... Appealing, combined modernism and sensuality so successfully that their sheer beauty often obscures their technical innovation played Debussy... Olivier Messiaen was fascinated by its `` extraordinary harmonic qualities and... transparent instrumental texture.! A different arrondissement careless '' for Harp and Orchestra, L. 103: 2 title included key!, voilà ce que j'aime '' – they are what I love 82... A good deal of Wagner 's operas at Bayreuth influence of Jules Massenet, the wife of a funeral! For Harp and Orchestra, L. 103: 2 music represents the transition from très! He made a set of piano rolls for the opening of Pelléas and began efforts to it. New ballet score, Jeux of formal schooling, Debussy held strong views about several others pentatonic structures him a... Artistic temperament ; much can be expected of him `` a charming,... Composers had a much more positive relationship with his music was to a temporary grave Père. Especially of Tristan, in January 1902 rehearsals began at the Société Nationale the. ] Debussy believed that since Beethoven, the patroness of Tchaikovsky supplemented his income teaching! Was under German aerial and artillery claude debussy music, distinctive and appealing, combined modernism and so... Council of the late Romantic era and early 20th centuries society and to...

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